LEWIS & CLARK COLLEGE


MAIN PAGE COURSE REQUIREMENTS ASSIGNMENT GUIDELINES WORLD WAR I IN FILM

SCHEDULE OF CLASSES

SPRING 2015

Week I Jan 21-23 Introduction
Week II Jan 26-30 The Breakdown
Week III Feb 2-6 A New Kind of War
Week IV Feb 9-13 Men and Machines
Week V Feb 16-20 Mind and Body
Week VI Feb 23-27 Conscience and Duty
Week VII Mar 2-6 The Home Front and the Women's War
Week VIII Mar 9-13 Economies of Scale
Week IX Mar 16-20 Revolution, Reaction, and Realignment
Week X Mar 30-Apr 3 Nations, States, and Empires
Week XI Apr 6-10 The Peace to End All Peace
Week XII Apr 13-17 Memory and Meaning
Week XIII Apr 20-24 Presentations
Week XIV Apr 27-29 Conclusion



Week I: Introduction

Jan 21: Introduction to the course and participants



Jan 23: La Belle Époque; the world before 1914

Reading:
-- Adam Gopnik, "The Big One: Historians rethink the war to end all wars," The New Yorker (2004) [electronic reserve]
-- "Introduction" in Strachan
-- Russell, "Publisher's Preface" and "Author's Preface" in Justice in War-Time



Week II: The Breakdown

Jan 26: The Concert of Europe and the Age of Empires

Reading:
-- Thomas Hobbes, "Relations among Sovereigns" in Leviathan (1651)
-- J.A. Hobson, "The Economic Taproot of Imperialism" in Imperialism: A Study (1902)
-- John Maynard Keynes, "Europe before the War" in The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1920)


Jan 28: The July Crisis

Reading:
-- Samuel Williamson, "The Origins of the War" (Strachan, Ch. 1)
-- Carl von Clausewitz, "War as an Instrument of Policy" in On War [Vom Kriege] (1832)
-- Sir Edward Grey, "Speech before the House of Commons" (1914)


Jan 30: The August Madness, or the triumph of emotion over reason

Reading:
-- Russell, "Why Nations Love War" in Justice in War-Time
-- Roland Stromberg, "Greeting the War" in Redemption by War: The Intellectuals and 1914 [reserve]



Week III: A New Kind of War

Feb 2: Mobilization

Reading:
Hew Strachan, "Economic Mobilization: Money, Munitions and Machines" (Strachan, Ch. 10)
Daniel J. Hughes, "Schlichting, Schlieffen, and the Prussian Theory of War in 1914," Journal of Military History, 59:2 (1995) [JSTOR]


Feb 4: Hell on Earth, or life along the front

Reading:
-- Ernst Jünger, "Trench warfare day by day" and "Somme Offensive" in Storm of Steel [Stahlgewittern] (1924) [reserve]
-- Donald Fraser, "My Daily Journal, Sept. 1915" from The Journal of Pvt. Donald Fraser, Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-18
Suggested film:
-- Fred Wilson and J.H. Pearson, "The Wipers Times" [excerpts] (1916-18)
Suggested film:
-- The Battle of the Somme (J.B. McDowell and G.H. Malins, 1916)


Feb 6: Propaganda

Reading:
-- J.M. Winter, "Propaganda and the Mobilization of Consent" (Strachan, Ch. 16)
-- Celia M. Kingsbury, "Children as War Mongers" in For Home and Country: World War I on the Home Front [reserve]
-- Rudyard Kipling, "For All We Have and Are" (1914), p.13
-- Rupert Brooke, "The Soldier" (1915), p.108
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "France" (1917)
Audio:
-- James G. Watson (former US ambassador to Germany), "The German Peril" (1917)
Film:
-- Charlie Chaplin, "Shoulder Arms" Pathé Films (1918)
Images:
-- Propaganda posters from the Allied and Central powers
-- Hoover Institution, Stanford University, British Images of the First World War



Week IV: Men and Machines

Feb 9: Factories of death

Reading:
-- John Ellis, "The Trauma, 1914-18" in The Social History of the Machine Gun [reserve]
-- Sigmund Freud, "Thoughts for the Times on War and Death" (1915)
-- Siegfried Sassoon, “The Kiss” (1917), p.31
Document:
-- Government of the United Kingdom, Death notice for 2nd Lt. W.D. Tull (1918)
Website:
-- Australia War Memorial (Government of Australia), "Somme Casualties"


Feb 11: The knights of the air

Reading:
-- John H. Morrow, "The War in the Air" (Strachan, Ch. 20)
-- Ariela Freedman "Zeppelin Fictions and the British Home Front" Journal of Modern Literature, 27:3 (2004) [JSTOR]
-- W.B. Yeats, "An Irish Airman foresees his Death" (1919)
Film:
-- Paths of Glory (Director: Stanley Kubrick, 1957), 7-10 PM, Miller 102


Feb 13: Courage, cowardice, and human expendability in a mechanized war

Reading:
-- David Englander, "Mutinies and Military Morale" (Strachan, Ch. 14)
-- Records of First World War Courts Martial in the National Archives of Britain
-- Rudyard Kipling, "Mary Postgate" (1915) and "Epitaphs: The Coward" (1919), p.162
-- Gilbert Frankau, "The Deserter" (1918), p.163

RESPONSE PAPER #1 DUE FEB 13




Week V: Mind and Body

Feb 16: The chemists’ war

Reading:
-- L.F. Haber, "The Chlorine Cloud" in The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War [reserve]
-- Government of the United Kingdom, Medical Manual of Chemical Warfare (1941)
-- Rudyard Kipling, "Gethsemane" (1919), p.130
-- Wilfred Owen, "Dulce et Decorum est" (1917), p.141
-- Richard Aldington, "Bombardment" (1919), p.124
Website:
-- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), "The Halifax Explosion, 1917"


Feb 18: Fit for battle?

Reading:
-- Robin Prior and Trevor Wilson, "Eastern Front and Western Front, 1916-17" (Strachan, Ch. 13)
-- J.M. Winter, "Military Fitness and Civilian Health in Britain during the First World War," Journal of Contemporary History, 15:2 (1980) [JSTOR]
-- Maj. G.R.N. Collins, "Evacuation of the Sick and Wounded" in Military Organisation and Administration (1918)
-- Eva Dobell, "In a Soldiers' Hospital" (1919), pp.207-208


Feb 20: Shattered selves

Reading:
-- Ben Shephard, "Psychiatry at the Front, 1917-18" in A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Twentieth Century [reserve]
-- Fiona Reid, "Shell Shock and Weak Nerves" in Broken Men: Shell Shock Treatment and Recovery in Britain, 1914-30 [electronic reserve]
-- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), US Dept. of Health, "Post-traumatic Stress Disorder"
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "Survivors" (1917)



Week VI: Conscience and Duty

Feb 23: Religion, philosophy and the morality of war

Reading:
-- St. Thomas Aquinas, "Part II, Question 40: War" in Summa Theologica (1274)
-- Russell, "The Ethics of War" in Justice in War-Time
-- Wilfred Owen, "The Parable of the Old Man and the Young" (1917), "Anthem for Doomed Youth" (1917), p.131
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "The Redeemer" (1917), p.62

Feb 25: The duty to obey

Reading:
-- J.A. Turner, "The Challenge to Liberalism" (Strachan, Ch. 12)
-- United States Government, The Sedition Act (1918)
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "Counter-Attack" (1918), p.135
-- Robert Graves, "Fairies and Fusiliers" (1918)
Film:
-- Regeneration (Director: Gillies MacKinnon, 1998), 7-10 PM, Miller 102


Feb 27: The duty to disobey

Reading:
-- Bertrand Russell, "Some Psychological Difficulties of Pacifism in Wartime" in Julian Bell (ed.), We Did Not Fight: 1914-18; Experiences of War Resisters (1935)
-- Russell, "An Appeal to the Intellectuals of Europe" and "War and Non-resistance" in Justice in War-Time
-- D.H. Lawrence, "Rondeau of a Conscientious Objector" (1919), p.28



Week VII: The Home Front and the Women's War

Mar 2: Women’s work

Reading:
-- H.G. Wells, "What the War is doing for Women" in What is Coming? A Forecast of Things After the War (1916)
-- Gail Braybon, "Women, War and Work" (Strachan, Ch. 11)
-- Claire A. Culleton, Working-class Culture, Women, and Britain, 1914-1921 (Ch.1) [reserve]
-- Jessie Pope, “War Girls” (1916), p.169


Mar 4: Love and death

Reading:
-- Vera Brittain, "When the Vision dies…" in Testament of Youth (1933) [reserve]
-- Vera Brittain, "Hospital Sanctuary" (1934), p.209
-- Ivor Gurney, "To His Love" (1919), p.97
Music:
-- "Quand Madelon" (1914), "Keep the Home Fires Burning" (1915) [Lyrics]

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY DUE MAR 4


Mar 6: Gender and Race (NO CLASS MEETING)

Reading:
-- Philippa Levine, "Battle Colors: Race, Sex, and Colonial Soldiery in World War I," Journal of Women’s History, 9:4 (1998) [Project Muse]



Week VIII: Economies of Scale

Mar 09: Mid-semester review session


Mar 11: MIDTERM EXAMINATION


Mar 13: Economic critiques of the war

Reading:
-- B.J.C. McKercher, "Economic Warfare" (Strachan, Ch. 9)
-- Lenin, Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917)



Week IX: Revolution, Reaction, and Realignment

Mar 16: War, socialism and revolution

Reading:
-- John Horne, "Socialism, Peace, and Revolution, 1917-1918" (Strachan, Ch. 17)
-- Rosa Luxemburg, "The War and the Workers" in The Junius Pamphlet (1916)
-- Leon Trotsky, "Introduction" and "The Revolutionary Epoch" in The Bolsheviks and World Peace (1918)


Mar 18: The war and the creation of the Modern Middle East

Reading:
-- Ulrich Trumpener, "Turkey’s War" (Strachan, Ch. 6)
-- Theodore Herzl, "On the Jewish State" (1896)
-- Sir Henry McMahon, Letter to Sherif Hussein ibn Ali (1915)
-- Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916)
-- Balfour Declaration (1917)
-- Palestine Mandate (1922)
-- T.E. Lawrence, Introduction and Chs. 1-2 in Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1922)
-- Atatürk, Speech at the National Convention of the People's Party of the Republic (1927)
Images:
-- Sir Mark Sykes and Georges Picot, Map proposing the postwar reconstruction of the Middle East (1916)
-- T.E. Lawrence, Map proposing the postwar reconstruction of the Middle East (1918) [description]
-- Map of the Mandate System in the Middle East (c.1930)


Mar 20: The eleventh hour: armistice and peace

Reading:
-- David Stevenson, "War Aims and Peace Negotiations" (Strachan, Ch. 15)
-- Conditions of the Armistice with Germany (1918)
-- Ernst Jünger, "My Last Storm" in Storm of Steel [Stahlgewittern] (1924) [reserve]
-- Vera Brittain, "This Loneliest Hour" in Testament of Youth (1933) [reserve]

RESPONSE PAPER #2 DUE MAR 20




Week X: Nations, States, and Empires

Mar 30: A birth of nations and the new internationalism

Reading:
-- Zara Steiner, "The Peace Settlement" (Strachan, Ch. 22)
-- Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World, xxv-xxxi [electronic reserve]
-- Russell, "The Danger to Civilization" in Justice in War-Time


Apr 1: The beginning of the end: The war and the fate of empires

Reading:
-- David Killingray, "The War in Africa" (Strachan, Ch. 7)
-- Christian Koller, "Representing Otherness: African, Indian and European soldiers' letters and memoirs" in Santanu Das (ed.), Race, Empire and First World War Writing [reserve]
-- Proclamation of the Irish Republic (1916) [image]
Film:
-- Gallipoli (Director: Peter Weir, 1981), 7-10 PM, Miller 102


Apr 3: The Newcomer: The global emergence of the United States

Reading:
-- David Trask, "The Entry of the USA into the War and its Effects" (Strachan, Ch. 18)
-- Woodrow Wilson, "Speech on the Fourteen Points" in Congressional Record, 65th Congress, 2nd Session (1918)
-- US State Department, Office of the Historian, "Milestones: The Dawes Plan, German Reparations, and Inter-allied War Debts"
Music:
-- George M. Cohen, "Over There" (1917)



Week XI: The Peace to End All Peace

Apr 6: Counting the cost: The demographic effects of the war

Reading:
-- Virginia Nicholson, "Where have all the Young Men gone?" and "A World that doesn't want me" in Singled Out: How Two Million Women survived without Men After the First World War [electronic reserve]
-- Vera Brittain, "The Superfluous Woman" (1934), p.255, "The Lament of the Demobilised" (1934)
-- Ezra Pound, "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley" [IV-V] (1920)


Apr 8: The uncertainty of the victors and the bitterness of the defeated

Reading:
-- Russell, "Is a Permanent Peace Possible?" in Justice in War-Time
-- Adolf Hitler, "The World War," "War Propaganda," and "The Revolution" in Mein Kampf (1925)


Apr 10: A return to normal?

Reading:
-- J.A. Hobson, "How to Break the Vicious Circle" in Democracy after the War (1917)
-- John Maynard Keynes, "Europe after the Treaty" in The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1920)
-- Warren G. Harding, "Back to Normal": a speech to the Home Market Club of Boston (1920)



Week XII: Memory and Meaning

Apr 13: The war in music and literature

Reading:
-- Rudyard Kipling, "The Children" (1917), "Epitaphs of the War" (1919)
Music:
-- Cecil Spring-Rice, "I Vow to Thee, My Country" (1921)
-- Eric Bogle, "The Band Played Waltzing Matilda" (1971), "No Man's Land" (1976)
-- John McCutcheon, "Christmas in the Trenches" (1984)
-- The Wolfe Tones, "A Soldier's Song" (1993) [Lyrics]


Apr 15: Sites of mourning

Reading:
-- Modris Eksteins, "Memory and the Great War" (Strachan, Ch. 23)
-- Lawrence Binyon, "For the Fallen" (1914), p.235
-- Christopher Hitchens, "Because our Fathers Lied" in Slate.com (2011)
Memorial Websites:
-- Commonwealth War Graves Commission
-- Australian War Memorial
-- Canadian National Vimy Memorial
-- ANZAC Commemorative Site (Government of Australia)
-- The Somme Association of Northern Ireland
-- First World War Centenary Project (Imperial War Museums)
Film:
-- Oh! What a Lovely War (Director: Richard Attenborough, 1969), 7-10 PM, Miller 102


Apr 17: Visual arts and entertainment

Reading:
-- Ana Carden-Coyne, "Wounded Visionaries" in The Guardian (Nov 2008)
Images:
-- Franz Marc, The Unfortunate Land of Tyrol (1913)
-- C.R.W. Nevison, La Mitrailleuse (1915)
-- Gino Severini, Armored Train in Action (1915)
-- Felix Vallotton, Verdun (1917)
-- Paul Nash, Spring in the Trenches, Ridge Wood (1917), A Howitzer Firing (1918)
-- John Nash, Over the Top (1917), A French Highway (1918)
-- Unknown African artist, German Surrender at Mbala, Northern Rhodesia (1918)
-- Paul Nash, We are Making a New World (1918), The Menin Road (1919)
-- John Singer Sargent, Gassed (1919)
-- Wyndham Lewis, A Battery Shelled (1919)
-- Max Beckmann, The Night (1919)
-- Stanley Spencer, Travoys Arriving with Wounded at a Dressing Station (1919)
-- Max Ernst Murdering Airplane (1920)
-- Otto Dix, Disabled Veterans Playing Cards (1920), Flanders (1936)
-- Otto Dix, Der Krieg (1924) [description]
-- Georg Grosz, Painter of the Hole (1948)
-- Gas Mask Angel (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Tournai, Belgium)
Video:
-- Monty Python, "The Short Straw" (1973) and "Fighting Each Other" (1983)
-- BBC TV, "Black Adder Goes Forth" [final episode] (1989)
Website:
-- Caen-Normandie Mémorial: Cité de L’Historie pour la Paix, Art of the First World War (1998)



Week XIII: Presentations

Apr 20: Presentations (Sten, Garret, Meredith, Elana, Spencer)


Apr 22: Presentations (Emma, Peter, Joe, Kushi, Sylvia)


Apr 24: Presentations (Sarah, Josh, Ting, Asha, Lars)




Week XIV: Conclusion

Apr 27: Presentations (Holly, Amy, Ryan, Hannah)


Apr 29: Conclusion: Legacies and lessons of "the war to end all wars"

Reading:
-- John McCrae, "In Flanders Fields" (1915), p.155
-- Osbert Sitwell, "The Next War" (1919), p.272
-- Stephen Moss, "Living Memorials" in The Guardian (May 2011)
Video:
-- The Telegraph, The Funeral of Harry Patch (6 Aug 2009)
-- BBC News, The Funeral of Claude Choules (20 May 2011)
-- BBC News, The Last World War I Veteran (7 Feb 2012)

RESEARCH ESSAY DUE APRIL 29


FINAL MEETING: TBD




Created by campion@lclark.edu
Updated: September 2014