Week I Jan 20-22 Introduction
Week II Jan 25-29 The Breakdown
Week III Feb 1-5 A New Kind of War
Week IV Feb 8-12 Men and Machines
Week V Feb 15-19 Mind and Body
Week VI Feb 22-26 Conscience and Duty
Week VII Feb 29-Mar 4 The Home Front and the Women's War
Week VIII Mar 7-11 Economies of Scale
Week IX Mar 14-18 Revolution, Reaction, and Realignment
Week X Mar 28-Apr 1 Nations, States, and Empires
Week XI Apr 4-8 The Peace to End All Peace
Week XII Apr 11-15 Memory and Meaning
Week XIII Apr 18-22 Presentations
Week XIV Apr 25-27 Conclusion

Week I: Introduction

Jan 20: Introduction to the course and participants

Jan 22: La Belle Époque; the world before 1914

-- Adam Gopnik, "The Big One: Historians rethink the war to end all wars," The New Yorker (23 Aug 2004) [library online]
-- "Introduction" in Strachan
-- Russell, "Publisher's Preface" and "Author's Preface" in Justice in War-Time

Week II: The Breakdown

Jan 25: The Concert of Europe and the Age of Empires

-- Thomas Hobbes, "Relations among Sovereigns" in Leviathan (1651)
-- J.A. Hobson, "The Economic Taproot of Imperialism" in Imperialism: A Study (1902)
-- John Maynard Keynes, "Europe before the War" in The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1920)

Jan 27: The July Crisis

-- Samuel Williamson, "The Origins of the War" (Strachan, Ch. 1)
-- Carl von Clausewitz, "War as an Instrument of Policy" in On War [Vom Kriege] (1832)
-- Sir Edward Grey, "Speech before the House of Commons" (1914)
-- Viscount Morley of Blackburn, "Memorandum on Resignation" (1914)

Jan 29: The August Madness, or the triumph of emotion over reason

-- Russell, "Why Nations Love War" in Justice in War-Time
-- Roland Stromberg, "Greeting the War" in Redemption by War: The Intellectuals and 1914
-- Modris Eksteins, "Berlin" in Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age

Week III: A New Kind of War

Feb 1: Mobilization

Hew Strachan, "Economic Mobilization: Money, Munitions and Machines" (Strachan, Ch. 10)
Daniel J. Hughes, "Schlichting, Schlieffen, and the Prussian Theory of War in 1914," Journal of Military History, 59:2 (1995) [JSTOR]

Feb 3: Hell on Earth, or life along the front

-- Ernst Jünger, "Trench warfare day by day" and "Somme Offensive" in Storm of Steel [Stahlgewittern] (1924)
-- Donald Fraser, "My Daily Journal, Sept. 1915" from The Journal of Pvt. Donald Fraser, Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-18
-- Fred Wilson and J.H. Pearson (eds.), "The Wipers Times" [excerpts: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] (1916-18)
-- Nottingham Evening Post, "The Wipers Times" (22 Mar 1916)
Suggested film:
-- The Battle of the Somme (J.B. McDowell and G.H. Malins, 1916)

Feb 5: Propaganda

-- J.M. Winter, "Propaganda and the Mobilization of Consent" (Strachan, Ch. 16)
-- Rudyard Kipling, "For All We Have and Are" (1914), p.13
-- Rupert Brooke, "The Soldier" (1915), p.108
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "France" (1917)
-- James G. Watson (former US ambassador to Germany), "The German Peril" (1917)
-- Charlie Chaplin, "Shoulder Arms" Pathé Films (1918)
-- Propaganda posters from the Allied and Central powers
-- Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin, World War I Propaganda Posters
-- Hoover Institution, Stanford University, British Images of the First World War

Week IV: Men and Machines

Feb 8: Factories of death

-- John Ellis, "The Trauma, 1914-18" in The Social History of the Machine Gun
-- Sigmund Freud, "Thoughts for the Times on War and Death" (1915)
-- Siegfried Sassoon, “The Kiss” (1917), p.31
-- Death notice telegrams from Canada (1916), Australia (1917), the United Kingdom (1918), and the United States (1918)
-- Australia War Memorial (Government of Australia), "Somme Casualties"

Feb 10: The knights of the air

-- John H. Morrow, "The War in the Air" (Strachan, Ch. 20)
-- Ariela Freedman, "Zeppelin Fictions and the British Home Front" Journal of Modern Literature, 27:3 (2004) [JSTOR]
-- W.B. Yeats, "An Irish Airman foresees his Death" (1919)
-- Funeral of Capt. Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron" (1918), Australia War Memorial
-- Paths of Glory (Director: Stanley Kubrick, 1957), 7-10pm, Miller 102

Feb 12: Courage, cowardice, and human expendability in a mechanized war

-- Alexander Watson, "Mutinies and Military Morale" (Strachan, Ch. 14)
-- Records of First World War Courts Martial in the National Archives of Britain
-- Rudyard Kipling, "Mary Postgate" (1915) and "Epitaphs: The Coward" (1919), p.162
-- Gilbert Frankau, "The Deserter" (1918), p.163

Week V: Mind and Body

Feb 15: The chemists’ war

-- L.F. Haber, "The Chlorine Cloud" in The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War
-- Government of the United Kingdom, Medical Manual of Chemical Warfare (1941)
-- Rudyard Kipling, "Gethsemane" (1919), p.130
-- Wilfred Owen, "Dulce et Decorum est" (1917), p.141
-- Richard Aldington, "Bombardment" (1919), p.124
-- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), "The Halifax Explosion, 1917"


Feb 17: Fit for battle?

-- J.M. Winter, "Military Fitness and Civilian Health in Britain during the First World War," Journal of Contemporary History, 15:2 (1980) [JSTOR]
-- Maj. G.R.N. Collins, "Evacuation of the Sick and Wounded" in Military Organisation and Administration (1918)
-- Eva Dobell, "In a Soldiers' Hospital" (1919), pp.207-208

Feb 19: Shattered selves

-- Ben Shephard, "Psychiatry at the Front, 1917-18" in A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Twentieth Century
-- Fiona Reid, "Shell Shock and Weak Nerves" in Broken Men: Shell Shock Treatment and Recovery in Britain, 1914-30 [library online]
-- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), US Dept. of Health, "Post-traumatic Stress Disorder"
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "Survivors" (1917)

Week VI: Conscience and Duty

Feb 22: Religion, philosophy and the morality of war

-- St. Thomas Aquinas, "Part II, Question 40: War" in Summa Theologica (1274)
-- Russell, "The Ethics of War" in Justice in War-Time
-- Wilfred Owen, "The Parable of the Old Man and the Young" (1917), "Anthem for Doomed Youth" (1917), p.131
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "The Redeemer" (1917), p.62

Feb 24: The duty to obey

-- John Turner, "The Challenge to Liberalism" (Strachan, Ch. 12)
-- United States Government, The Sedition Act (1918)
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "Counter-Attack" (1918), p.135
-- Robert Graves, "Fairies and Fusiliers" (1918)
-- Regeneration (Director: Gillies MacKinnon, 1998), 7-10pm, Miller 102

Feb 26: The duty to disobey

-- Bertrand Russell, "Some Psychological Difficulties of Pacifism in Wartime" in Julian Bell (ed.), We Did Not Fight: 1914-18; Experiences of War Resisters (1935)
-- Russell, "An Appeal to the Intellectuals of Europe" and "War and Non-resistance" in Justice in War-Time
-- Siegfried Sassoon, “Finished with the War” An open letter to The Times (1917)
-- D.H. Lawrence, "Rondeau of a Conscientious Objector" (1919), p.28
-- Society of Friends (Quakers) of Britain, Witnessing for Peace in World War I

Week VII: The Home Front and the Women's War

Feb 29: Women’s work

-- H.G. Wells, "What the War is doing for Women" in What is Coming? A Forecast of Things After the War (1916)
-- Susan Grayzel, "The Role of Women in the War" (Strachan, Ch. 11)
-- Claire A. Culleton, Working-class Culture, Women, and Britain, 1914-1921 (Ch.1)
-- Jessie Pope, “War Girls” (1916), p.169

Mar 2: Love and death

-- Vera Brittain, "When the Vision dies…" in Testament of Youth (1933)
-- Vera Brittain, "Hospital Sanctuary" (1934), p.209
-- Ivor Gurney, "To His Love" (1919), p.97
-- "Quand Madelon" (1914), "Keep the Home Fires Burning" (1915) [Lyrics]


Mar 4: Gender and race

-- Philippa Levine, "Battle Colors: Race, Sex, and Colonial Soldiery in World War I," Journal of Women’s History, 9:4 (1998) [Project Muse]

Week VIII: Economies of Scale

Mar 7: The newcomer: The global emergence of the United States

-- David Trask, "The Entry of the USA into the War and its Effects" (Strachan, Ch. 18)
-- Woodrow Wilson, "Speech on the Fourteen Points" in Congressional Record, 65th Congress, 2nd Session (1918)
-- US State Department, Office of the Historian, "Milestones: The Dawes Plan, German Reparations, and Inter-allied War Debts"
-- George M. Cohen, "Over There" (1917) [Lyrics]


Mar 11: Economic critiques of the war

-- B.J.C. McKercher, "Economic Warfare" (Strachan, Ch. 9)
-- Lenin, Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917)

Week IX: Revolution, Reaction, and Realignment

Mar 14: War, socialism and revolution

-- John Horne, "Socialism, Peace, and Revolution, 1917-1918" (Strachan, Ch. 17)
-- Rosa Luxemburg, "The War and the Workers" in The Junius Pamphlet (1916)
-- Leon Trotsky, "Introduction" and "The Revolutionary Epoch" in The Bolsheviks and World Peace (1918)

Mar 16: The creation of the Modern Middle East

-- Ulrich Trumpener, "Turkey’s War" (Strachan, Ch. 6)
-- Theodore Herzl, "On the Jewish State" (1896)
-- Sir Henry McMahon, Letter to Sherif Hussein ibn Ali (1915)
-- Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916)
-- Balfour Declaration (1917)
-- Palestine Mandate (1922)
-- T.E. Lawrence, Introduction and Chs. 1-2 in Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1922)
-- Atatürk, Speech at the National Convention of the People's Party of the Republic (1927)
-- Sir Mark Sykes and Georges Picot, Map proposing the postwar reconstruction of the Middle East (1916)
-- T.E. Lawrence, Map proposing the postwar reconstruction of the Middle East (1918) [description]
-- Map of the Mandate System in the Middle East (c.1930)

Mar 18: The eleventh hour: armistice and peace

-- David Stevenson, "War Aims and Peace Negotiations" (Strachan, Ch. 15)
-- Conditions of the Armistice with Germany (1918)
-- Ernst Jünger, "My Last Storm" in Storm of Steel [Stahlgewittern] (1924)
-- Vera Brittain, "This Loneliest Hour" in Testament of Youth (1933)


Week X: Nations, States, and Empires

Mar 28: A birth of nations and the new internationalism

-- Zara Steiner, "The Peace Settlement" (Strachan, Ch. 22)
-- Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World, xxv-xxxi
-- Thomas Hardy, "In time of 'The Breaking of Nations'" (1915)
-- Russell, "The Danger to Civilization" in Justice in War-Time

Mar 30: The beginning of the end: The war and the fate of empires

-- David Killingray, "The War in Africa" (Strachan, Ch. 7)
-- "In Foreign Fields" in The Economist (Aug 2014)
-- Christian Koller, "Representing Otherness: African, Indian and European soldiers' letters and memoirs" in Santanu Das (ed.), Race, Empire and First World War Writing
-- Proclamation of the Irish Republic (1916) [image]
-- BBC Archive, Indian Soldiers during World War I
-- Gallipoli (Director: Peter Weir, 1981), 7-10pm, Miller 102


Week XI: The Peace to End All Peace

Apr 4: Counting the cost: The demographic effects of the war

-- Virginia Nicholson, "Where have all the Young Men gone?" and "A World that doesn't want me" in Singled Out: How Two Million Women survived without Men After the First World War [library online]
-- Vera Brittain, "The Superfluous Woman" (1934), p.255, "The Lament of the Demobilised" (1934)
-- Ezra Pound, "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley" [IV-V] (1920)

Apr 6: The uncertainty of the victors and the bitterness of the defeated

-- Russell, "Is a Permanent Peace Possible?" in Justice in War-Time
-- Adolf Hitler, "The World War," "War Propaganda," and "The Revolution" in Mein Kampf (1925)

Apr 8: A return to normal?

-- J.A. Hobson, "How to Break the Vicious Circle" in Democracy after the War (1917)
-- John Maynard Keynes, "Europe after the Treaty" in The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1920)
-- Warren G. Harding, "Back to Normal": a speech to the Home Market Club of Boston (1920)
-- Joe Young and Sam M. Lewis, "How Ya Gonna Keep 'em Down on the Farm (after They've seen Paris)?" (1919) [Lyrics]

Week XII: Memory and Meaning

Apr 11: The war in music and literature

-- Rudyard Kipling, "The Children" (1917), "Epitaphs of the War" (1919)
-- Cecil Spring-Rice, "I Vow to Thee, My Country" (1921)
-- Eric Bogle, "The Band Played Waltzing Matilda" (1971), "No Man's Land" (1976)
-- John McCutcheon, "Christmas in the Trenches" (1984)
-- The Wolfe Tones, "A Soldier's Song" (1993) [Lyrics]

Apr 13: Sites of mourning and remembrance

-- Modris Eksteins, "Memory and the Great War" (Strachan, Ch. 24)
-- Laurence Binyon, "For the Fallen" (1914), p.235
-- Christopher Hitchens, "Because our Fathers Lied" in Slate.com (2011)
Memorial Websites:
-- Commonwealth War Graves Commission
-- Australian War Memorial
-- Canadian National Vimy Memorial
-- ANZAC Centenary (Government of Australia)
-- The Somme Association of Northern Ireland
-- First World War Centenary Project (Imperial War Museums)
-- Oh! What a Lovely War (Director: Richard Attenborough, 1969), 7-10pm, Miller 102

Apr 15: Visual arts and entertainment

-- Ana Carden-Coyne, "Wounded Visionaries" in The Guardian (Nov 2008)
-- Franz Marc, The Unfortunate Land of Tyrol (1913)
-- C.R.W. Nevison, La Mitrailleuse [The Machinegun] (1915), Paths of Glory (1917)
-- Gino Severini, Armored Train in Action (1915)
-- Felix Vallotton, Verdun (1917)
-- Paul Nash, Spring in the Trenches, Ridge Wood (1917), A Howitzer Firing (1918)
-- John Nash, Over the Top (1917), A French Highway (1918)
-- Unknown African artist, German Surrender at Mbala, Northern Rhodesia (1918)
-- Paul Nash, We are Making a New World (1918), The Menin Road (1919)
-- John Singer Sargent, Gassed (1919)
-- Wyndham Lewis, A Battery Shelled (1919)
-- Max Beckmann, The Night (1919)
-- Stanley Spencer, Travoys Arriving with Wounded at a Dressing Station (1919)
-- Max Ernst Murdering Airplane (1920)
-- Otto Dix, Disabled Veterans Playing Cards (1920), Flanders (1936)
-- Otto Dix, Der Krieg [War] (1924) [description]
-- Georg Grosz, Painter of the Hole (1948)
-- Gas Mask Angel (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Tournai, Belgium)
-- Monty Python, "The Short Straw" (1973) and "Fighting Each Other" (1983)
-- BBC TV, "Black Adder Goes Forth" [final episode] (1989)
-- Caen-Normandie Mémorial: Cité de L’Historie pour la Paix, Art of the First World War (1998)

Week XIII: Presentations

Apr 18: Presentations: Sam, Liana, Zachary, Aaron

Apr 20: Presentations: Charlotte, Jack, Sema, Remington, Daniel

April 22 marks the 100th anniversary of the first use of poison gas as a weapon of war during the first day of the Second Battle of Ypres.

Apr 22: Presentations: Candace, Brenden, Wataru, Alice, Josef

April 24 is Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day. This year marks the 100th anniversary of the beginning of the deportation and mass starvation and execution of ethnic Armenians by Turkish authorities in the Ottoman Empire. Events will be held to commemorate the anniversary in Armenia, the United States, and among the worldwide Armenian diaspora.

April 25 is ANZAC Day in Australia and New Zealand. This year marks the 100th anniversary of the Dardanelles Campaign which began at dawn on April 25, 1915. The commemoration will be a major event in both countries as well as in Turkey. At local time in Portland (Pacific Standard) the traditional dawn services will occur on Friday, April 24, as follows:

-- 11:00am at the Auckland War Memorlal, New Zealand
-- 12:30pm at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra
-- 7:30pm at Anzac Cove and Lone Pine War Cemetery in Gallipoli, Turkey

The ceremonies will be streamed live by the ABC (Australia Broadcasting Corporation).

Week XIV: Conclusion

Apr 25: Presentations: Elina, Megha, Alex, Taylor

Apr 27: Conclusion: Legacies and lessons of "the war to end all wars"

-- John McCrae, "In Flanders Fields" (1915), p.155
-- Osbert Sitwell, "The Next War" (1919), p.272
-- Stephen Moss, "Living Memorials" in The Guardian (May 2011)
-- "The Centenary Delusion" in The Economist (Jan 2015)
-- The Telegraph, The Funeral of Harry Patch (6 Aug 2009)
-- BBC News, The Funeral of Claude Choules (20 May 2011)
-- BBC News, The Last World War I Veteran (7 Feb 2012)


FINAL MEETING: MONDAY, 2 MAY, 1:00-4:00 pm

Created by campion@lclark.edu
Updated: October 2015