Catalog 2009-10 Table of Contents
Catalog 2009-10
Information found in this online edition of the 2009-10 catalog is unofficial and for informational purposes only. By authority of the dean of the College, some factual corrections to the printed version may appear here. The official document of record is the printed edition of the 2009-10 Catalog. For more information, please contact the Office of the Registrar.

Please Note:

This is the 2009-10 catalog. Students are subject to the requirements in effect when they entered and should refer to the appropriate catalog. Please visit the catalog archive to find the correct edition of the catalog. Thank you.

Policies and Procedures

Academic Integrity Policy

Principles of Conduct

The community of scholars at Lewis & Clark is dedicated to personal and academic excellence. Joining this community obligates each member to observe the principles of mutual respect, academic integrity, civil discourse, and responsible decision making.

Academic Integrity

Academic integrity finds its genesis in the fundamental values of honesty, tolerance, respect, rigor, fairness, and the pursuit of truth. Scholarship is at the heart of this academic community, and trust between faculty and students is essential to the achievement of quality scholarship. At times scholarship is collaborative, at times independent. All sources, both written and oral, should be properly cited. Acts of academic dishonesty are contrary to the mission of Lewis & Clark and constitute a serious breach of trust among community members.

Academic Integrity in Practice

Lewis & Clark believes that each member of the community is responsible for the integrity of his or her individual academic performance. In addition, because each act of dishonesty harms the entire community, all individuals--students, faculty, and staff members alike--are responsible for encouraging the integrity of others by their own example, by confronting individuals they observe committing dishonest acts, and/or by discussing such actions with a faculty member or academic dean, who will respect the confidentiality of such discussions. When any individual violates this community's standards, Lewis & Clark is committed as a community to take appropriate steps to maintain standards of academic integrity.

Acts of academic dishonesty involve the use or attempted use of any method or technique enabling a student to misrepresent the quality or integrity of his or her academic work.

Academic dishonesty with respect to examinations includes but is not limited to copying from the work of another, allowing another student to copy from one's own work, using crib notes, arranging for another person to substitute in taking an examination, or giving or receiving unauthorized information prior to or during the examination.

Academic dishonesty with respect to written or other types of assignments includes but is not limited to failure to acknowledge the ideas or words of another that have consciously been taken from a source, published or unpublished; placing one's name on papers, reports, or other documents that are the work of another individual, whether published or unpublished; flagrant misuse of the assistance provided by another in the process of completing academic work; submission of the same paper or project for separate courses without prior authorization by faculty members; fabrication or alteration of data; or knowingly facilitating the academic dishonesty of another.

Academic dishonesty with respect to intellectual property includes but is not limited to theft, alteration, or destruction of the academic work of other members of the community, or of the educational resources, materials, or official documents of Lewis & Clark.

For more information about the Lewis & Clark's academic integrity policy, consult The Pathfinder (Student Handbook), the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, or the Office of the Dean of Students.

Academic Standing

Academic Standing Rules and Regulations

A student not on academic probation or academic suspension is considered to be in good academic standing. Academic standing is monitored at the end of each grading period by the registrar, who notifies the student and academic advisor when the student's performance is found to be unsatisfactory. Unsatisfactory performance may be the result of unsatisfactory grades (less than 2.000 semester or cumulative GPA), unsatisfactory completion of registered coursework, or both. Students receiving financial aid need also to be aware of the satisfactory progress requirements for continued eligibility for financial aid. For details, see page 267.

The registrar uses a set of report categories to inform a student when performance is unsatisfactory. These categories are as follows:
Warning Academic warning expresses concern that a possible problem is developing. Warnings are not recorded on the student's official transcript.
Probation Academic probation notifies the student that a problem exists. Probationary status is noted on the student's official transcript.
Suspension Academic suspension notifies the student of his or her ineligibility to enroll in the College of Arts and Sciences for a specified period of time, normally two semesters. Suspended status is noted on the student's official transcript. A student on academic suspension must meet the following conditions in order to be considered for reinstatement:

  • Earn at least 12 credits in letter-graded work from another institution. The credits must be transferable to Lewis & Clark. (Consult with the Office of the Registrar for applicable courses.)
  • Earn a minimum GPA of 2.500 in these 12 credits, with no single grade less than a C.
  • Submit a written request to the registrar. The request should contain the following: a) Personal assessment of the reason for poor performance; b) An explanation of how the student plans to overcome the difficulty, along with a proposed academic plan; c) An official transcript of all coursework completed elsewhere during the absence from Lewis & Clark.

If the student's request to be reinstated is approved by the Subcommittee for Academic Standing, the student will be reinstated on probation.
Dismissal If after reinstatement to the Lewis & Clark a student receives a second academic suspension, the student is permanently dismissed with no further opportunity to enroll at Lewis & Clark College.

Academic Standing Criteria

Current StatusSemester GPACumulative GPAResulting Status
Neither Warning nor Probation1.7-1.9991.7-4Warning
 1.5-1.6992-4Warning
 1.5-1.6991-1.999Probation
 1-1.4991-4Probation
 0-0.9990-4Suspension
 0-40-0.999Suspension
Warning2-41.7-1.999Continued Warning
 1.5-1.9991.5-4Probation
 0-1.4990-4Suspension
 0-40-1.499Suspension
Probation1.5-1.9990-4Continued Probation
 0-41.5-1.999Continued Probation
 0-1.4990-4Suspension
 0-40-1.499Suspension

A student who earns a GPA lower than 2.000 after having earned a GPA lower than 2.000 for three consecutive semesters or after having been on warning or probation for three consecutive semesters will be suspended.

A student who completes fewer than 12 credits and fails to complete all registered courses will receive a warning. A student who completes fewer than 12 credits and fails to complete all registered courses for a second consecutive semester or who is already on warning and completes fewer than 12 credits and fails to complete all registered courses will be placed on probation. A student who completes fewer than 12 credits and fails to complete all registered courses for a third consecutive semester or who is already on probation and completes fewer than 12 credits and fails to complete all registered courses will be suspended.

Academic Appeal Process

If extenuating circumstances should be taken into account in determining a student's academic standing, the student may submit a written appeal to the registrar. Appeals will be reviewed by the Subcommittee for Academic Standing, whose decision is final. The major concerns of the subcommittee are the welfare of the student and the student's ability to maintain satisfactory grades and satisfactory progress. The appeal should be made as soon as possible and must contain a personal assessment of the reason for poor performance, an explanation of how the student plans to overcome the difficulty, and a proposed academic plan. The student may solicit support from faculty or staff to help facilitate the appeal process.

Cocurricular Eligibility

In order to participate in certain cocurricular activities such as student government or varsity athletics, a student must be in good academic standing.

Definition of Class Standing

Class standing is based on the total number of completed credits:*
First year: 0-28 semester credits
Sophomore: 29-60 semester credits
Junior: 61-92 semester credits
Senior: 93 semester credits and above

* Completed credits are those that apply toward the 128 semester credits required for graduation, including transfer credits and credits by examination.

Standard Academic Progress

Standard academic progress is based on the completion of 128 semester credits over a four-year or eight-semester period, which will normally require completion of 32 semester credits per year. Some variation of up to 3 semester credits below this level is permitted, but the cumulative total of semester credits completed by the end of each year must be equivalent to the number required for promotion to the next class standing. Thus, a student is deemed to be making standard academic progress who completes 29 semester credits by the end of the first year, 61 semester credits by the end of the second year, and 93 semester credits by the end of the third year. Mathematics 055 is considered part of the academic course load and is used to calculate standard academic progress, but it cannot be counted as part of the 128 semester credits required for graduation.

Lewis & Clark recognizes that personal circumstances sometimes interfere with the ability to make standard academic progress. Students who plan to complete their degree over a longer than normal period should consult with their advisor or the director of academic advising and, if necessary, with the Office of Student Financial Services.

Advanced Standing

Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate

Lewis & Clark grants 4 semester credits for Advanced Placement (AP) scores of 4 or 5, except for Calculus BC, which is granted 8 semester credits. No more than 8 credits for Calculus AB and BC will be awarded.

Lewis & Clark also recognizes the International Baccalaureate (IB) academic program. Four semester credits are granted for scores of 5 on the higher-level exams, or 8 semester credits for scores of 6 or 7 on the higher-level exams, or 16 semester credits for completion of the IB diploma with a score of 32 to 35, or 24 semester credits for a score of 36 or higher.

Credit granted through the AP or IB program is considered elective credit toward graduation and may not be used to fulfill General Education requirements, except for foreign language and literature examinations.

The chart below shows treatment of AP and IB credit in some academic departments with regard to placement in the curriculum and major requirements. To find out whether AP or IB test results can be used for placement within the curriculum of a department not listed here, students should consult the department chair.

Department

Elective credit toward major requirements

Course equivalent or placement

Biology

AP 5 or IB 7: Four credits toward 43 credits required for major.

AP 4 or IB 6: Credits granted toward graduation are not used as elective credits toward the major.

AP 5 considered equivalent to Biology 151. IB 7 considered equivalent to Biology 141 or 151 depending on specific focus of IB course. Consult department chair for placement.

Chemistry

AP 5 or IB 7: Four credits toward 40 credits required for major.

AP 4 or IB 6: Credits granted toward graduation are not used as elective credits toward the major.

AP 5 or IB 7 results in placement into Chemistry 120 or 210. Considered equivalent to Chemistry 110, a 5-credit course, though only 4 credits are granted toward graduation. AP 4 or IB 6: Student may petition for placement into Chemistry 120.

Economics

AP 4 or 5, or IB 6 or 7 in both microeconomics and macroeconomics or in statistics: Four credits toward 44 credits required for economics major.

AP 4 or 5 in statistics: Also applies toward major as described above.

AP 4 or 5, or IB 6 or 7 in both microeconomics and macroeconomics considered equivalent to Economics 100.

AP 4 or 5 in statistics considered equivalent to Economics 103.

English

 

AP 4 or 5, or IB 6 or 7 results in placement into English 205 or 206. Consult department chair for placement.

Environmental Studies

AP 5: Four credits toward 63 credits required for major.

AP 5 considered equivalent to Biology 141.

Foreign Languages and Literatures

Credits received for AP or IB exam results are not accepted toward a major in this department because major requirements begin at the 300 level.

AP 4 or 5 on language or literature examinations and IB 5, 6, or 7 on higher-level examinations meet General Education requirement in foreign languages.

History

 

AP 4 or 5, IB 6 or 7 suggests students are eligible for 200- or 300-level history courses.

Mathematical Sciences: Calculus

Credits received for AP exam results are not accepted toward a major in this department because major requirements begin with higher-level courses.

AP Calculus AB 4 or 5 considered equivalent to Mathematics 131. AP Calculus BC 4 or 5 considered equivalent to Mathematics 131 and 132. Consult department chair for placement.

Mathematical Sciences: Computer Sciences

 

Consult department chair for placement.

Mathematical Sciences: Statistics

AP 4 or 5: Four credits toward either the economics major or the psychology major.

AP 4 or 5 considered equivalent to Economics 103, Mathematics 105, or Psychology 200.

Physics

 

AP 5 in Physics C (mechanics) considered equivalent to Physics 141 or 151. Consult department chair for placement.

Political Science

AP 5 in U.S. Government and Politics and Comparative Government and Politics may be counted toward political science major upon approval of the department. Consult department chair for details.

 

Psychology

AP 4 or 5 or IB 6 or 7: Four credits toward 40 credits required for major.

AP 4 or 5 in statistics: Also applies toward major as described above.

AP 4 or 5, IB 6 or 7 considered equivalent to Psychology 100. However, students with AP 4 or IB 6 are encouraged to enroll in Psychology 100.

AP 4 or 5 in statistics considered equivalent to Psychology 200.

See also Graduation Requirements in this catalog (Scientific and Quantitative Reasoning and Foreign Languages).

Credit by Examination

Students interested in challenging a Lewis & Clark course (seeking credit for it by examination) should consult the Office of the Registrar for faculty policy and procedures. Credit is not granted for College-Level Examination Program (CLEP), life experience, or credit by examination from other colleges.

Course Registration

Course Load Policies

Students must complete a minimum of 128 semester credits for graduation. The normal full-time course load is 16 semester credits. To be considered full-time, a student must take at least 12 semester credits. Students who wish to underload (register for fewer than 12 credits) shall notify the registrar by submitting an underload card. Students who wish to overload (register for more than 19 semester credits) must have a 3.000 cumulative grade point average and obtain written approval from their academic advisor on a card provided by the registrar. Faculty policy recommends that a request to overload be carefully reviewed, taking into account the student's overall academic performance, as well as his or her current schedule. The maximum for which a student may enroll in one semester is 21 semester credits.

Summer semester consists of two six-week sessions. To be considered full-time, a student must take 12 credits during the semester. A student may take up to 9 credits per session and a maximum of 18 credits for the semester. The overload policy for summer semester is the same as that for fall and spring semesters.

Course Numbering

Courses numbered at the 100 level are considered introductory; at the 200 level, intermediate; and at the 300 and 400 levels, advanced. Class standing should generally be used as a guide to enrollment in courses at each level. (For example, first-year and sophomore students generally take 100- and 200-level courses.) Exceptions may be made, taking into account an individual student's academic experience.

Cross-Registration

Graduate School of Education and Counseling An undergraduate student may be eligible to register for courses in Lewis & Clark's Graduate School of Education and Counseling during fall or spring if he or she meets all the following criteria:

  • Has completed 93 undergraduate semester credits.
  • Has obtained the consent of the graduate course instructor and graduate registrar.
  • Is enrolled full-time (is taking no fewer than 12 credits) at the College of Arts and Sciences during the semester of cross-registration.

During the summer term, students need not be registered full-time at the College of Arts and Sciences, but regular Graduate School of Education and Counseling tuition rates will apply.

In order to apply credit earned in a Graduate School of Education and Counseling course to an undergraduate major or minor, the student also needs approval in advance from the major or minor department chair in the College of Arts and Sciences.

Other Private Colleges and Universities Lewis & Clark participates in a cross-registration program with other members of the Oregon Independent Colleges Association (OICA). Under this program, full-time Lewis & Clark students may enroll in one undergraduate course per semester at another OICA campus without paying additional tuition. However, the host campus may charge special course fees (such as laboratory fees) that apply to all students enrolled in the course. Not all courses at host institutions are covered by the program.

Cross-registration through the OICA program requires approval of both the Lewis & Clark registrar and the host campus registrar. (Approval of both registrars is also required to drop a cross-registered course.) Students should ask their advisor or department chair for information on cross-registered courses that meet program or major requirements.

Students may not cross-register for a course already offered at Lewis & Clark unless there is a legitimate scheduling conflict. Further details on the cross-registration program and a complete list of participating institutions are available from the Office of the Registrar.

Practica, Internships, Directed Study, and Independent Study

Students are encouraged to pursue educational opportunities that occur outside the regular curriculum. These may include student and faculty research collaborations, directed or independent study of topics not covered in existing courses, on-campus activities and practicum experiences, and internships, including both noncredit and for-credit activities. Such learning experiences are a valued part of a Lewis & Clark education. Students should consult with their academic department and the Center for Career and Community Engagement regarding the range of opportunities available to them.

Students must work with faculty to receive academic credit for learning experiences that occur outside the regular curriculum.

244/444 Practica and Internships Courses numbered 244 and 444 enable students to earn credit for a practicum or internship. (Some departments also offer internships that include regular class meetings and therefore bear course numbers other than 244 or 444.) Practica and internships allow students to gain academic credit for field experiences. Faculty supervision ensures a rigorous academic component. Practica typically take place on campus. Internships often occur off campus and entail collaboration with an onsite supervisor who provides direction to the student and reports to the faculty member about the student's onsite performance. Departments determine whether 244 or 444 credit is more appropriate for a particular field experience; likewise, departments determine whether to title an experience as practicum or internship. These activities are usually graded on a credit-no credit basis.

299/499 Directed and Independent Studies Courses numbered 299 and 499 are available for directed and independent pursuit of faculty-supervised study. Topics are limited to those not addressed by the existing curriculum. Such experiences range from studies in which an instructor provides considerable supervision (e.g., convenes small classes or meets regularly with research teams) to independent studies in which students consult with faculty to develop a more autonomous project. Departments determine whether 299 or 499 credit is more appropriate and whether to title a particular experience directed or independent study. Letter grades are the default, but these activities can also be graded on a credit-no credit basis (following the normal procedures for credit-no credit grading).

Regulations The following rules govern students and faculty members participating in practicum, internship, directed study, or independent study opportunities:

  • Students may earn 1 to 4 semester credits from any single course numbered 244/444 or 299/499, and up to 4 credits from such courses in a single semester. Students may not apply more than 16 credits total of practicum, internship, directed, or independent study credit toward graduation requirements, and no more than 8 of those 16 semester credits may be from courses numbered 244 or 444. Credit earned for practicum and internship experiences under other course numbers is included in the 16-credit limitation.
  • Practicum, internship, directed study, and independent study courses may not be used to fulfill General Education requirements.
  • A written agreement between the faculty member and the student is to be finalized before the activity commences. This agreement acts in lieu of a syllabus and specifies the activity to be done, the amount of time to be spent on the activity, the amount of credit to be granted, the nature and length of the product of the activity, and the expectations for both the student and the faculty member. Registration and this written agreement between the student and the faculty member must be submitted to the registrar's office before the activity commences.
  • The amount of credit awarded should be based on the academic component of the activity as well as the amount of time spent on the activity. A suggested metric is 2.5 to 3 hours per week per credit over a 14-week term.
  • The student must submit a product of the activity to the faculty member by an agreed date. The nature of the product, to be determined by the faculty member and the student before activity commences, should be appropriate for the activity. It is recommended that for a written product, the required length be commensurate with the amount of credit being granted.
  • The faculty member will submit a grade (whether letter or credit-no credit) to the registrar at the appropriate time.
  • A paid position may qualify for academic credit if the student, faculty member, department (and, in some instances, an off-campus organization or institution) determine it is appropriate and that there is an academic component to the experience that warrants credit.

Procedures To register for a course numbered 244/444 or 299/499, students must follow these steps:

  1. Obtain the appropriate online form from the Office of the Registrar.
  2. Meet with the faculty member to complete the form and develop the written agreement.
  3. Obtain the signature of the faculty member and the department chair. Students pursuing internships must also obtain the signature of the on-site supervisor.
  4. Submit the form and the written agreement to the Office of the Registrar before beginning the practicum, internship, directed study, or independent study.

Students pursuing an internship are strongly encouraged to contact the Center for Career and Community Engagement to learn about regularly scheduled orientation sessions and support resources.

Repeated Courses

Certain courses may be taken more than once for credit toward the degree (see individual course descriptions). Otherwise, courses that are repeated may not be counted for credit toward the degree. For example, if a student repeats a particular course in order to improve the grade, Lewis & Clark counts the course credits only once toward graduation requirements. Both the original grade and the repeated grade are used in calculating the student's grade point average and will appear on the transcript.

Registration Changes

To add courses after the first day of classes, students must obtain the instructor's signature on the Add/Drop/Withdraw Form, and file the completed form in the Office of the Registrar during the first two weeks of the semester.* Students are not normally permitted to add courses after the second week.*

To drop courses, students must either file a completed Add/Drop/Withdraw Form or drop the course online by the end of the second week of the semester.* For Exploration and Discovery, the required first-year course, students normally will not be permitted to withdraw.

First-year students must obtain signatures from their academic advisors to add or drop courses, and thus may not make changes online.

Courses from which a student withdraws after the second week appear on the transcript with the grade recorded as W (withdrawal).* Students are permitted to withdraw from a course (except Exploration and Discovery) until the end of the 10th week of the semester by filing an Add/Drop/Withdraw Form. Withdrawal after the 10th week of the semester requires consent of the course instructor.*

Students who need to drop all of their courses after the semester has started will be considered as completely withdrawn for that semester. All courses will appear on the transcript with a grade of W (withdrawal).

In this case, the student must submit either a Leave of Absence form or a Withdrawal form to the Office of the Registrar, depending on whether the student plans to return to Lewis & Clark College in a future semester. Lewis & Clark's policies allow for charges to be prorated based on the date the registrar's office receives notification of the withdrawal. For details, please refer to Policy of Charge Adjustment. Complete withdrawals after the 10th week of the semester require consent from each instructor.* Failure to officially withdraw may result in failing grades and may jeopardize the student's eligibility to reenroll or to transfer to another institution. In case of illness or emergency, the student can contact Student Support Services for assistance with the process.

* Dates are compressed for the summer semester. See the academic calendar.

Final Examinations

Lewis & Clark College has a four-day final examination period. Students who have three examinations scheduled on the same day will be allowed to reschedule one of their exams to another day. Students who have courses in period 4/5 TTH and period 7 and period 12--all of which share the same final exam time--will be allowed to reschedule, as necessary, the conflicting exam(s). Students must initiate a request to the faculty involved, and the faculty will determine which examination may be rescheduled within the examination period.

Degree Application Deadlines

Seniors must file a degree application during the semester following completion of 92 semester credits. This allows the registrar sufficient time to review the application and to inform the student of any inconsistencies or remaining requirements. Deadlines for filing degree applications are as follows:

October 15, 2009, for May 2010 degree date
March 1, 2010, for August 2010 degree date
May 1, 2010, for December 2010 degree date

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

Lewis & Clark follows policies in the maintenance and distribution of student records that are in conformity with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974 (The Buckley Amendment). The abbreviated text of these policies is published annually in the student handbook, The Pathfinder (go.lclark.edu/college/handbook), and at go.lclark.edu/college/registrar.

Grading System

Grades

The registrar compiles and maintains permanent academic records for all students. Grades are assigned by instructors as follows:
A Outstanding work that goes beyond analysis of course material to synthesize concepts in a valid and/or novel or creative way.
B Very good to excellent work that analyzes material explored in class and is a reasonable attempt to synthesize material.
C Adequate work that satisfies the assignment, a limited analysis of material explored in class.
D Passing work that is minimally adequate, raising serious concern about readiness to continue in the field.
F Failing work that is clearly inadequate, unworthy of credit.
DFD Deferred. A temporary designation normally used at the end of a semester for a course continuing for two semesters. When the full sequence is completed, the given grade applies to both semesters.
I Incomplete. An Incomplete grade may be assigned at the discretion of the instructor when a student has been unable to complete the coursework in the normal time period.1 It is the responsibility of the individual faculty member--in consultation with the student--to decide whether the student has a legitimate reason for not completing the work on time. In general the Incomplete grade is used when circumstances beyond the control of the student prevent completion of the course.

When an Incomplete grade is assigned, the completed coursework must be submitted to the instructor of record no later than the end of the fourth week of the following semester, unless otherwise arranged with the instructor and the registrar.2 In no case will an Incomplete grade be carried longer than 12 calendar months from the last day of the semester when the course was taken. An Incomplete grade may not be carried beyond a student's graduation date. Upon expiration, an unresolved Incomplete grade becomes an F or NC, depending on the grading option for the course.

CR-NC Credit-No Credit. Successful completion of course requirements at the level of C (2.000) or higher is signified on the transcript by Credit (CR). Students who fail to successfully complete the requirements at the level of C (2.000) receive a designation of No Credit (NC).

Most courses are offered for a letter grade. In certain cases, a student may request the CR-NC option by filing a special form with the registrar during the add/drop period at the beginning of the semester. Consent of the instructor is required for the CR-NC option in regularly graded courses. This option may not be changed after it is filed.3

In courses designated CR-NC only, a student may not request a letter grade. CR-NC grades are not used for calculating the student's GPA. Lewis & Clark does not limit the number of courses that may be taken on a CR-NC basis.

Note: Courses taken to fulfill General Education requirements (except physical education/activity courses) may not be taken with the CR-NC option.

W Withdrawal. A Withdrawal grade is recorded when a course is dropped after the second week of the semester. Withdrawal after the end of the 10th week requires consent of the course instructor. W grades are also recorded in the case of a complete semester withdrawal at any time after the semester begins. W grades are not used for calculating the student's GPA.

1 An Incomplete for Core 106 or 107 must also have approval of the Core director.
2 An extension for Core 106 or 107 must also have approval of the Core director.
3 The single exception to this rule is that a faculty member may assign a grade of F if a student is found guilty of a violation of Lewis & Clark's Academic Integrity Policy.

Grade Point Average

Letter grades are converted to a numerical equivalent as follows:

A 4.0 points/semester credit

C 2.0 points/semester credit

A- 3.7 points/semester credit

C- 1.7 points/semester credit

B+ 3.3 points/semester credit

D+ 1.3 points/semester credit

B 3.0 points/semester credit

D 1.0 points/semester credit

B- 2.7 points/semester credit

F, DFD, I, W, CR-NC: no points

C+ 2.3 points/semester credit

The grade point average (GPA) is calculated by dividing the total number of grade points by the number of semester credits carrying numerical equivalent grades. Excluded from the GPA calculation are all courses in which the designation DFD, I, W, or CR-NC was awarded. The GPA is based entirely on Lewis & Clark coursework.

Grade Reports

The Office of the Registrar processes grades during the two weeks following examinations. Students may access their grades online. Students who wish to have their grades mailed must submit their request in writing to the Office of the Registrar.

Academic Grievance Procedure

If a student alleges that a final grade in a course is an inaccurate reflection of his or her performance, the student should first attempt to resolve the matter with the individual faculty member.

If unable to reach a resolution, the student and faculty member will request assistance from the department chair or program director. If this attempt at resolution is unsuccessful, either party may submit a formal written appeal to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, whose decisions in matters of academic grievances are final.

No grade may be changed after one year from the date of issuance.

Honors

Most departments recognize student academic achievement through an honors program for which students may be nominated or may apply. Honors standing requires a minimum cumulative and major grade point average of 3.500 or higher and successful completion of a senior project in the student's major. Details are included under the appropriate departmental headings.

Degrees with distinction are awarded on the basis of students' overall academic record at Lewis & Clark College (minimum 60 credits): cum laude (with honors), 3.700 to 3.799; magna cum laude (with high honors), 3.800 to 3.899; summa cum laude (with highest honors), 3.900 to 4.000.

The Dean's List honors academic achievement each semester. Students who are enrolled full time and achieve a GPA of 3.700 or higher, with at least 12 graded semester credits, are named to the Dean's List and this distinction is recorded on their transcript for the semester.

The Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Society of Fellows singles out and brings together students and teachers of the highest caliber in a lifelong association beginning with study at Lewis & Clark. The fellows are chosen by the president of Lewis & Clark from students who show exceptional potential for leadership, maintain a superior GPA (normally 3.75 or higher), demonstrate an interest in physical fitness, and conduct themselves in an exemplary manner marked by integrity and service to others. Within its fundamental commitment to recognize outstanding merit, the Pamplin Society is strongly committed to ethnic diversity in its membership.

The Rena Ratte Award is made annually to recognize a senior whose abilities and commitment have combined to produce work of the highest distinction. Colleagues, students, and friends of the late Professor Ratte established this award in 1970 in memory of a distinguished philosopher and esteemed teacher.

Phi Beta Kappa, the nation's oldest honor society, established a Lewis & Clark chapter in 1997. Members are chosen for academic excellence and breadth in the liberal arts as well as good character. For more information, visit www.lclark.edu/~pbk.

The AAUW Senior Woman Award, sponsored by the American Association of University Women, recognizes a senior of outstanding scholarship, character, personality, contributions to campus and community life, and potential for future achievement.

The College of Arts and Sciences holds an annual convocation to honor students who are awarded departmental and collegewide honors.

Leave of Absence/Withdrawal/Readmission

Leave of Absence

Students who wish to leave Lewis & Clark for a period of time must apply for a leave of absence. This process allows both the student and the institution to plan for a return to studies and completion of a degree at Lewis & Clark. The maximum leave that may be granted is two semesters.

The deadlines for filing a Leave of Absence form are November 1 (for a leave beginning in the spring semester) and April 1 (for a leave beginning in the fall semester).

Students who require a medical leave or other forms of emergency leave may contact the Office of the Dean of Students at any time during the year. Upon approval by the Office of the Dean of Students, such requests for emergency and medical leave will be forwarded to the registrar for processing.

If a leave of absence is granted, General Education requirements as well as major and minor requirements (if a major or minor has been declared) in place at the beginning of the leave will apply when the student returns from the leave. Students who wish to return after a period exceeding that granted in the leave must apply for readmission through the Office of the Registrar, and will be subject to the graduation requirements in effect at the time of their return.

Any academic work completed while on leave might not be transferable to Lewis & Clark unless it has been approved in advance by the Office of the Registrar. Any transfer credits that the student wishes to apply to meet major or minor requirements must also be approved by the department or program chair.

Students who follow the procedure outlined below will be assured reentry to the College of Arts and Sciences at the end of their leave and will be informed whether work done elsewhere will be transferable to Lewis & Clark. Students who do not follow the procedures outlined below, as well as students who fail to return to Lewis & Clark at the end of their approved leave, will be withdrawn. Such students must reapply through the Office of the Registrar if they wish to return to the College of Arts and Sciences.

Requesting a Leave of Absence

  1. Visit go.lclark.edu/college/registrar and complete the online Petition for Leave of Absence. Submit the completed form, including a detailed statement of why you are requesting leave, to your faculty advisor.
  2. Meet with your faculty advisor to discuss the reasons for your request, and whether any academic work you intend to complete while on leave will fit into your overall academic plan. Obtain your advisor's signature indicating this meeting has occurred.
  3. Return the signed form to the Office of the Registrar. The staff will confirm that you understand the reentry procedures and have provided all necessary information.

Your signed and submitted form will be processed by the Office of the Registrar and forwarded to the Offices of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and the Dean of Students. After your form is reviewed by the Offices of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and the Dean of Students, you will receive an e-mail notification regarding their decision. If you are denied a leave of absence, you may appeal the decision to the Curriculum Subcommittee on Petitions.

The Office of the Registrar contacts students during their leaves, prior to the on-campus registration period, via the students' Lewis & Clark e-mail addresses to confirm the students' intentions to return the next semester. Student must keep the Office of the Registrar apprised of their contact information and must meet all regular deadlines for registration, housing reservations, financial aid applications, and similar matters. Students are also required to contact their faculty advisors prior to registration in order to obtain approval for registration, and must meet with their faculty advisors when they return to campus. Students on leave will register on WebAdvisor during the on-campus registration period.

Before returning to Lewis & Clark, students must provide, if applicable, an official transcript of all academic work completed elsewhere during the leave of absence.

Students who wish to return to Lewis & Clark at a time other than that indicated on the original agreement, but within the two-semester maximum, must inform the Office of the Registrar in advance.

Withdrawal

Semester Withdrawal Students who need to drop all courses after the semester has started will be considered completely withdrawn for that semester. All courses will appear on the transcript with a grade of W (Withdrawal). To preserve the option of returning to the College of Arts and Sciences in a future semester, students must submit a Petition for Leave of Absence to the Office of the Registrar. Complete withdrawals after the 10th week of the semester require consent from each instructor. Students who fail to officially withdraw from courses they are no longer attending may receive failing grades and become ineligible to reenroll or to transfer to another institution.

Lewis & Clark's policies allow for charges to be prorated based on the date the Office of the Registrar receives written notification of withdrawal. For details, please refer to Policy of Charge Adjustment.

Permanent Withdrawal Students who wish to withdraw from Lewis & Clark permanently must obtain a Withdrawal form from the Office of the Registrar or the Office of the Dean of Students. The completed form, including a detailed statement of why the withdrawal is requested, must be submitted to the Office of the Dean of Students.

Readmission

Students who want to return to Lewis & Clark after having left without taking an official leave of absence or who have been away from the institution for more than two semesters must apply for readmission. Information concerning readmission, including application materials and procedures, is available in the Office of the Registrar. Readmitted students are subject to Lewis & Clark requirements in effect during the year of their return.

Majors and Minors

Majors*

Lewis & Clark offers 28 majors. A student's major presents an opportunity to explore an area of interest in depth, to develop knowledge and skills for that particular field of inquiry, and to learn both the discipline and the satisfaction of pursuing a rigorous course of study.

Students with junior class standing or higher (61 or more completed credits) must have a declared major. Those who have not officially declared a major with the Office of the Registrar will not be allowed to register for courses in any subsequent semester.

The choice of a major does not imply the choice of career, but instead represents the base for a range of future opportunities. With careful advising and creative choice of electives, two students majoring in the same field may be preparing for quite different careers; similarly, students with nearly identical careers may have arrived there from very different majors. After graduation, some students proceed directly to graduate study or employment in the field in which they majored. Others apply the skills and knowledge gained from the major in less obvious but equally valid ways. For example, a philosophy major may choose a career in law, business education, medicine, or research; a biology major may go on in oceanography; a chemistry major may choose to work in industry or government; a history major may decide on publishing, public administration, or the broadcast media.

In today's economy people can expect to change careers several times. The skills of thinking and communicating and the aptitude for learning developed through a liberal arts education are more useful and adaptable than any narrowly defined vocational specialization.

A major normally constitutes approximately one-third of a student's academic program, but in no case may a student receive credit toward graduation for more than 60 semester credits in one academic department. Majors consist of a group of required and elective courses. At least 20 semester credits for the major must be taken at Lewis & Clark with a cumulative GPA of 2.000 or higher in the major. See academic department listings for major requirements. (See also Graduation Requirements.)

* For a complete list of majors and minors offered by Lewis & Clark, see the College Profile in this catalog.

Double Majors

Students may graduate with a maximum of two majors, if they complete all requirements for each major. Where requirements for majors overlap, a student must complete at least 28 discrete semester credits in each major. In no case may students double major if they complete a student-designed major.

Student-Designed Majors

A student may propose a major focusing on a body of knowledge that has a definable character and extends beyond the bounds of existing majors or departments. The course of study for a student-designed major must be planned and submitted for approval before the major may be officially declared.

Development of a student-designed major involves selection of and consultation with a three-member faculty advisory committee, and submission of a formal proposal to the Curriculum Subcommittee on Petitions, Appeals, and Student-Designed Majors. Students are urged to begin constructing a proposal during the sophomore year, because they must initiate it no later than the first semester of the junior year. Transfer students seeking to undertake a student-designed major must follow the same timeline.

A student-designed major must consist of courses from more than one department, and must include a balance between upper- and lower-division courses and a senior-year project that integrates work in the major. The senior project can take the form of a thesis, internship, creative project, or artistic performance for which students receive 4 credits in SD 400. The total number of credits for the major should be no fewer than 40.

Students wanting to pursue a student-designed major must take the following steps:

  1. Discuss a plan with the chair of the Curriculum Subcommittee on Petitions, Appeals, and Student-Designed Majors and faculty members who might serve on a faculty advisory committee.
  2. Submit a statement of intent to propose a student-designed major (forms available in the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences) no later than the third week of the semester in which the process is initiated. No proposal may be initiated later than the first semester of the junior year (defined as the fourth semester before the student's anticipated graduation date).
  3. Submit (on forms provided by the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences) an application that includes the following: a) A clearly written rationale for the major, describing the integration of the disciplinary elements in detail and the focus of the proposed course of study; b) A brief description of the anticipated senior project; c) A list of courses to be completed and the sequence of study that will compose the major; and d) The signatures of three faculty members who approve the proposal and agree to serve as the faculty advisory committee.
  4. Submit a letter of support from one member of the faculty advisory committee attesting to the student's ability to pursue an independent course of study, as well as the faculty member's preparation and willingness to guide the student's program.

The completed proposal must be filed in the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences no later than the end of the sixth week of the semester. The proposal must be approved by the Curriculum Subcommittee on Petitions, Appeals, and Student-Designed Majors before the major can be officially declared. Approval of a student-designed major may be granted only if a student has achieved a GPA of 3.000 or higher for the previous 32 semester credits. Students undertaking a student-designed major may not double major. Students declaring a student-designed major must submit a prospectus of the senior project to the faculty advisory committee and to the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences in the semester prior to registering for the project.

Honors Students completing a student-designed major may receive honors upon graduation if they have a GPA of 3.500 and if the faculty advisory committee judges the senior project worthy of honors.

Minors*

At Lewis & Clark students are expected to devote roughly one-third of their studies to fulfilling major requirements and one-third to General Education requirements. This leaves one-third available for electives.

Some students choose to coordinate their choice of elective courses in order to complete requirements for a minor. A minor represents a clearly defined set of courses identifying a secondary area of expertise. The student may opt for a minor that complements the major or one that is seemingly unrelated to the major. Some overlap is permitted, with courses counting toward both the major and the minor, but a minimum of 12 semester credits must be discrete to the minor (i.e., may not be used in any other set of major or minor requirements). Students must also maintain a cumulative GPA of 2.000 or higher in minor courses.

Minors consist of a group of required and elective courses. At least 12 semester credits for the minor must be taken at Lewis & Clark. Minors are offered through a department, program, or curriculum; some are interdisciplinary. See departmental listings for minor requirements.

Students declare a minor on a form available from the Office of the Registrar. Department chairs are responsible for verifying the completion of a student's minor on a Minor Verification Form, available in the Office of the Registrar. No more than two minors may be recorded on a student's transcript.

* For a complete list of majors and minors offered by Lewis & Clark, see the College Profile in this catalog.

Modification of Requirements

Students may petition to have an academic requirement modified. Before submitting a petition, a student should meet with his or her advisor and/or the Office of the Registrar to consider ways of fulfilling the requirement without the need for modification. If that is not possible, the student may obtain a petition form from go.lclark.edu/college/registrar. This form should be filled out online, printed, given to the advisor for his or her signature, and returned to the Office of the Registrar. The Curriculum Subcommittee on Petitions reviews the petition and approves or denies the request. The subcommittee's decision is final.

Veterans

Lewis & Clark is required by law to report to the Veterans Administration any undergraduate veteran student who remains on academic probation for more than two semesters.

In addition, Lewis & Clark must inform the Veterans Administration if a veteran is suspended from the institution for academic dishonesty.

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